What is the Cloud Shared Responsibility Model and why should I care?
When I have discussions with customers moving to a public cloud provider, one of the main topics of conversation (quite rightly) is security of services and servers in the cloud. Long discussions and whiteboarding takes place where loads of boxes and arrows are drawn and in the end, the customer is confident about the long term security of their organisation’s assets when moving to Azure or AWS.
Almost as an aside, one of the questions I ask is how patching of VMs will be performed and a very common answer is “doesn’t Microsoft/AWS patch them for us?”. At this point I ask if they’ve heard of the Shared Responsibility Model and often the answer is “no”. So much so that I thought a quick blog post was in order to reinforce this point.
So then, what is the Shared Responsibility Model? Put simply, when you move services into a public cloud provider, you are responsible for some or most of the security and operational aspects of the server (tuning, anti-virus, backup, etc.) and your provider is responsible for services lower down the stack that you don’t have access to, such as the hypervisor host, physical racks, power and cooling.
That being said, there is a bit more to it than that, depending on whether or not we’re talking about IaaS, PaaS or SaaS. The ownership of responsibility can be thought of as a “sliding scale” depending on the service model. To illustrate what I mean, take a look at the diagram below, helpfully stolen from Microsoft (thanks, boys!).
Reading the diagram from left to right, you can see that in the left most column where all services are hosted on prem, it is entirely the responsibility of the customer to provide all of the security characteristics. There is no cloud provider involved and you are responsible for racking, stacking, cooling, patching, cabling, IAM and networking.
As we move right to the IaaS column, you can see subtle shades of grey emerging (quite literally) as with IaaS, you’re hosting virtual machines in a public cloud provider such as Azure or AWS. The provider is responsible for DC and rack security and some of the host infrastructure (for example, cloud providers patch the host on your behalf), but your responsibility is to ensure that workloads are effectively spread across hosts in appropriate fault and update domains for continuity of service.
Note however that in the IaaS model, as you the customer are pretty much responsible for everything from the guest upwards, it’s down to you to configure IAM, endpoint security and keep up to date with security patches. This is where a lot of the confusion creeps in. Your cloud provider is not on the hook if you fail to patch and properly secure your VMs (including network and external access). Every IaaS project requires a patching and security strategy to be baked in from day one and not retrofitted. This may mean extending on prem AD and WSUS for IAM and patching, to leverage existing processes. This is fine and will work, you don’t necessarily need to reinvent the wheel here. Plus if you re-use existing processes, it may shorten any formal on boarding of the project with Service Management.
Carrying on across the matrix to the next column on the right is the PaaS model. In this model, you are consuming pre-built features from a cloud provider. This is most commonly database services such as SQL Server or MySQL but also includes pre-built web environments such as Elastic Beanstalk in AWS. Because you are paying for a sliver of a larger, multi-tenant service, your provider will handle more layers of the lower stack, including the virtual machines the database engine is running on as well as the database engine itself. Typically in this example, the customer does not have any access to the underlying virtual machine either via SSH or RDP, as with IaaS.
However, as the matrix shows, there is still a level of responsibility on the customer (though the operational burden is reduced). In the case of Database PaaS, the customer is still in charge of backing up and securing (i.e. encryption and identity and access management) the data. This is not the responsibility of the provider with the exception of logical isolation from other tenants and the physical security of the hardware involved.
Finally, in the far right column is the SaaS model. The goal of this model is for the customer to obtain a service with as little administrative/operational overhead as possible. As shown in the matrix, the provider is responsible for everything in the stack from the application down, including networking, backup, patching, availability and physical security. IAM functions are shared as most SaaS is multi-tenant, so the provider must enforce isolation (in the same way as PaaS) and the customer must ensure only authorised personnel can access the SaaS solution.
You will note that endpoint security is also classed as a shared responsibility. Taking Office 365 as an example, Microsoft provide security tools such as anti-virus scanning and data loss prevention controls, it is up to the customer to configure this to suit their use case. Microsoft’s responsibility ends with providing the service and the customer’s starts with turning the knobs to make it work to their taste. You will also notice that as in all other cases, it is solely the customer’s responsibility to ensure the classification and accountability of the data. This is not the same as the reliability of the services beneath it (networking, storage and compute) as this is addressed in the lower layers of the model.
I hope this article provides a bit of clarity on what the Shared Responsibility Model is and why you should care. Please don’t assume that just because you’re “going cloud” that a lot of these issues will go away. Get yourself some sound and trusted advice and make sure this model is accounted for in your project plan.
For your further reading pleasure, I have included links below to documentation explaining provider’s stances and implementation of the model :-
- Microsoft – Shared Responsibilities for Cloud Computing
- AWS – AWS Security Best Practices
- Google – Security and Compliance Practices
As always, any questions or comments on this post can be left below or feel free to ping me on Twitter @ChrisBeckett